IPVanish is a easy to use as well as feature-rich VPN. It’s a fantastic device to increase your on the internet protection and privacy, or merely appreciate Netflix or YouTube. In addition, all of this comes with a wallet-friendly cost.
Based in the United States, this VPN unclogs Netflix, works with numerous torrenting clients, and also supplies instead broadband with WireGuard tunneling method.
And to tease you a little bit extra– IPVanish is able to offer you a wide variety of functions as well as several of them aren’t located in any other VPN. You can set your VPN link to work on your favored wi-fi or application with the On Demand attribute. And also, the SOCKS5 proxy is included which will certainly come as helpful if you are a torrenting fan.
Do not hurry into putting your pink glasses on. Just like any other VPN service provider this also has its very own shortcomings. Applications could obtain fairly awkward to utilize.
However, there are whole lots to find if you’re prepared to vanish a couple of bucks for the service. Proceed reviewing this IPVanish evaluation and find out what you might anticipate from it.
- Score : 4.6/ 5.
- General rank: # 3 out of # 29.
- No logs plan: No logs.
- Price: From $3.33/ month.
- Web servers :2000+ servers in 50 nations.
- Streaming solutions: Netflix, YouTube.
- Promo codes: IPVanish promo code 69% OFF.
IPVanish benefits and drawbacks.
- One of the most inexpensive yearly alternatives.
- Geographically varied servers.
- Unrestricted connections.
- Automatization choices.
- Free SOCKS5 proxy.
- Price increases after a year.
- Does not work in China.
Is IPVanish great for streaming?
While it is able to unclog several of the significant platforms, for instance, Netflix or YouTube, it can have problem with the remainder including Disney Plus as well as DAZN.
|BBC iPlayer||… Yes|
|Disney +||❌ No|
|Amazon Prime Video||❌ No|
IPVanish doesn’t have actually specialized web servers for streaming. You will certainly be making use of the exact same ones as for everything else. It might get fairly bothersome as you are not able to bypass pretty vital streaming sites.
All in all, if you are a TV collection binge viewer, after that IPVanish wouldn’t be the best choice to choose. You could find the most effective option for this on our list of the very best VPNs for streaming.
Uncloging Netflix with IPVanish.
IPVanish is a reasonable alternative for bypassing Netflix geo-restrictions. With this VPN, I took care of to unblock United States Netflix as well as enjoy the ’90s Twin Peaks. There were no ices up or buffering disruptions. I can announce that IPVanish works with Netflix and also is qualified of bringing you some streaming enjoyment.
If you also elegant to view some European titles, I have unfortunate information for you. IPVanish could not unclog most of the European Netflix libraries, with a very few exceptions. If you want a VPN that unblocks the European Netflix, i recommend you take a look at our best VPN for Netflix checklist.
What other streaming platforms does IPVanish unblock?
I have chosen numerous huge websites to check IPVanish’s capabilities however the result had not been as exciting as you would certainly intend to see. Only 3 streaming websites got unblocked with IPVanish– Netflix (US collection, YouTube, as well as BBC iPlayer).
Besides Netflix US getting unblocked, YouTube also had not been a difficult nut to split. When attached to their servers, you can unblock geographically restricted sports highlights or trailers without issues. Even if you would certainly such as to see what advertisements are received other nations, it’s feasible.
The ideal unblocking streak finished with BBC iPlayer. To be precise, I have actually managed to unclog the website as well as get to see the video clips. The high quality of them was inadequate and I have come across buffering. Looking for BBC iPlayer VPNs would certainly be the ideal option.
The adhering to frustration was fulfilled while attempting to access DAZN. The VPN was captured in their filters, returning an error as well as blocking access to the website. The very same happened with other following streaming systems.
However, if you intend to establish IPVanish with Kodi box, you can download the.apk submit from their web site and also install it on the tool. With this VPN, it will certainly be straightforward to unblock certain content collections.
Generally, IPVanish seems a good choice for streaming. If you’re just interested in Netflix as well as YouTube, IPVanish will certainly do just great.
Is IPVanish safe as well as excellent for torrenting?
Yes, IPVanish is safe and also quite excellent for torrenting. Reality be informed, IPVanish isn’t making a huge marketing factor out of its P2P abilities.
Due to the fact that torrenting with IPVanish jobs without troubles, I’ve discovered out this isn’t such a substantial problem. During the tests, the download speed was 7-8MB/ s (56-64mbps) once it linked to every one of the peers. The speeds were a little bit greater than I’m accustomed to seeing on average.
There’s also a cost-free SOCKS5 proxy. To be precise, this web server is terrific for those that seek to preserve great speeds yet at the same time, they want to be safe as well as have on the internet privacy. Those that desire to take benefit of also higher speeds also have choices.
However bear in mind that we all have various needs, it’s constantly beneficial to have added choices. In this case, checking our leading VPNs for torrenting could assist.
Plans and also rates.
The primary problem that you’ll have when selecting an IPVanish rates plan is whether you require SugarSync. You can either get just the VPN or a bundle that includes their encrypted storage.
SugarSync package (includes 500 GB of encrypted storage space):.
|1-month plan||$12.99 a month|
|1-year plan||$89.99 for the first year, then $109.99|
No matter just how you distribute the amount, you will be billed quickly for the whole amount in advance. Although, when put in perspective, their month-to-month costs aren’t that high. Taking into consideration the number of attributes that you obtain, it’s a pretty good offer.
If you have usage for encrypted storage space, the included cost of SugarSync is well worth it. After the first month or first-year discount rate ends, the pricing isn’t that low. This practically makes IPVanish the most inexpensive VPN to utilize for a year.
Their 30-day money-back assurance only relates to their yearly plans. If you wish to obtain an IPVanish cost-free test, don’t select a regular monthly option, as you will not obtain a reimbursement. All strategies sustain endless synchronised connections, so you’ll have total freedom over the number of gadgets you can make use of with the VPN.
Available settlement options consist of credit cards and PayPal. If you’re planning to pay with cryptocurrencies, you will not be able to do it.
, if IPVanish prices look a little bit steep– we may have a option.. Take a look at our web page for IPVanish discount coupons to see if there’s a deal waiting for you.
Can you get IPVanish VPN free of charge?
Formally, IPVanish does not provide a free test or a cost-free plan . Nevertheless, there is a 30-day money-back guarantee for those who choose to pick a yearly or a 2-year plan. So what’s so good concerning it?
Well, although having a complimentary VPN for just a month can be not enough for some, it’s still an appropriate regard to time to try the program. By registering for a costs plan you get to experience all VPN advantages without any omitted function.
Alternatively, with a complimentary VPN, you would certainly obtain a suite of protection with some serious cut-offs. Less web servers as well as areas to select from, no possibility to bypass geo-restrictions, or also less tunneling methods.
That being claimed, by using a 30-day money-back guarantee you have the ability to evaluate the application, learn your requirements with a VPN, as well as remain protected free of cost for a entire month!
IPVanish web servers as well as locations.
The web server matter isn’t the most essential attribute of a VPN service, however it has its advantages. A huge fleet permits avoiding traffic jam on their web servers. It indicates that your speeds will endure much less if the customer base is evenly spread out around the world.
In this regard, IPVanish has ~ 2000 web servers in ~ 75 areas. Although the fleet isn’t the largest, the nation quantity is above the standard. Furthermore, all these servers are owned by the firm, which has safety benefits.
IPVanish VPN web server fleet.
Out of 6 materials, these 4 (North America, Europe, Asia, Oceania) are the wealthiest in web servers:.
|Regions||Number of servers||Number of countries|
|North America||~ 1278 servers||4 countries|
|Europe||~ 527 servers||30 countries|
|Asia||~ 84 servers||9 countries|
|Oceania||~ 73 servers||2 countries|
Furthermore, it’s hassle-free and also fairly easy to choose a server and area on IPVanish’s application. Here is how:.
- Find your chosen area on a map.
- Click a environment-friendly bubble that recognizes the variety of servers.
- Connect to the suggested fastest server or among your options.
If you’re intending to make use of IPVanish for Asian web servers, it could be a little bit crowded if even more customers decided to link at the same time. Nonetheless, those choosing Europe will have a far better user experience.
Remember that range from the VPN server and also your area will additionally affect your rate.
Does IPVanish operate in China?
After running through the examination we have come to the point that IPVanish does not work in China. But there might be a option that can help.
Don’t keep your hopes high. As IPVanish states on its site “… please note that China, particularly, has actually begun blacklisting our IP addresses also … so also this step might not help”.
What you could try is connecting by means of a manual configuration by attaching to IPVanish’s web servers’ IP addresses as opposed to its server names. By doing this, China could overlook that you are making use of a VPN.
And also if the latter approach really did not help you out, you ought to have a look at our listed best VPNs for China.
Rate and efficiency: Is IPVanish fast?
IPVanish speeds are outstanding given that it supports the fastest tunneling protocol presently available on the marketplace– WireGuard. Our tests have actually revealed rapid download rates, retaining around 80-90% of the original efficiency in key locations. And also depending upon your area and server, upload rates can be really near to that also.
IPVanish has an choice to choose the OpenVPN tunneling method which likewise provides quite great speeds. You can see the results from the past 14 days in the table below. It includes the leading three areas that are most commonly selected by users.
Data period: 06.20 – 07.04
|68 Mbit/s||279 Mbit/s|
|228 Mbit/s||299 Mbit/s|
|219 Mbit/s||302 Mbit/s|
See live VPN company data on our VPN rate examination tool.
To summarize, IPVanish can bring wonderful rates and boost your browsing experience. The best thing you can do is connect to the WireGuard method and select a location that is not as well much from you. For this reason, you would certainly have light-fast speeds and excellent safety!
IPVanish performance with various other methods.
Apart from WireGuard and OpenVPN, IPVanish likewise sustains other tunneling methods, consisting of L2TP, pptp, as well as ikev2 .
Below are the results for all available procedures:.
Baseline: 300 Mbps download/300 Mbps upload.
- IKEv2: 238/32.
- OpenVPN UDP: 137/55.
- OpenVPN TCP: 163/135.
- L2TP: 90/24.
- PPTP: 42/22.
- WireGuard: 240/130.
The moment to connect with IKEv2 was dramatically less than with OpenVPN. The download rates were much more consistent and total greater, however the upload speed went down significantly oftentimes. Usually, the download speeds visited 21%, while upload speed drops were around 89%. As with OpenVPN, ping times were additionally greater than usual.
Although the majority of other VPN company are going down assistance for L2TP, it’s still right here. The download rate goes down typically were 70%, while the upload rates come by 23%. Coupled with the reality that ping times likewise weren’t excellent, it looks like the only instance where L2TP could be helpful is compatibility. It must service the majority of devices without problems. That’s barely a selling point on its own, thinking about the rate decreases.
It appears that widely PPTP is the worst option that IPVanish has. Typical download and upload speed decreases were 86% as well as 93%, specifically.
Altogether, below is how leading IPVanish’s procedures stand versus each other:.
Nonetheless, you can obtain an even much better understanding of IPVanish speeds if you know exactly how various other VPNs execute. So let’s compare IPVanish’s results with the WireGuard procedure to the other leading VPN service providers:.
|Provider||Average download speed|
Overall, IPVanish can really go punch-for-punch with even the fastest VPN suppliers in the world when it pertains to rates with the WireGuard tunneling protocol. IPVanish is an alternative we can advise if you’re looking for solid performance.
IPVanish VPN video clip review.
If you want to have some even more visual info about IPVainish or just see a enchanting individual talking, after that it’s worth having a look at our video clip IPVanish evaluation below.
Interface and ease of use
|Windows||The richest experience with IPVanish|
|macOS||Less customizable but easy to use|
|Linux||No graphical app, works through terminal|
|Mobile devices||Decent user-friendly applications|
The apps of IPVanish VPN are quite easy to use, yet they will be more appreciated by sophisticated individuals– mainly thanks to the variety of attributes, advanced settings, and also in-depth stats about the link. Windows, Mac, Android, as well as iphone individuals will obtain committed applications, while those who make use of Linux will certainly need to utilize the Command Line Interface.
If you are a Windows customer, with IPVanish you get a option from numerous tabs like QuickConnect, Server List, as well as Account settings. By switching the tabs, you can quickly alter your settings or connect to a different web server.
IPVanish VPN home windows UI.
The server checklist can be switched over from checklist view to map view, which I located really practical. There’s even a filter according to the proximity as well as latency of the server. You are able to add web servers to a Favorite list which will certainly be presented on the top of the country listing.
Also, the Windows kill button is a bit much more customizable than on the macOS variation, allowing even local area network obstructs. Other than SSTP as well as PPTP tunneling methods, nothing is dividing the Windows and also macOS versions.
Feature-wise, the macOS version has a kill button, auto-reconnect, an obfuscation toggle, and also on-demand rules.
IPVanish VPN UI on MacOS.
Apart from that, the macOS variation is much less personalized than the Widows app. Yet the experience with IPVanish doesn’t worsen. The whole user interface remains similar which is quite easy to use as well as still appears to be adjustable sufficient to get the most effective out of it.
IPVanish mobile applications.
Suppose you’re an avid cybersecurity devices user by now. Because instance, you need to have noticed that iphone applications hardly ever have the edge over Android. IPVanish apps are no exemption to the rule. Their Android variation is head and also shoulders over the iOS version.
The iOS variation has On Demand connections, Siri faster ways, and an alternate link setting. Otherwise, there’s absolutely nothing else. Except for quite comfy as well as nice-looking interface.
ipvanish for ios.
The Settings section enables you to conveniently tailor the capability of the application. There you will find protection tools that you may allow, for instance, the On Demand attribute.
While you are picking a server and place that you intend to attach to, IPVanish makes certain you have the possibility of linking to the best possible option. Significance, it determines what web server and also the city are the very best available.
Although the iphone app has a better design, functioning remains basically the same on Android. Neither application has a devoted kill switch.
Below, you’re obtaining the obfuscation toggle as well as split tunneling. You can even lower the maximum packet dimension that can be sent over your network, which can assist if you’re having trouble getting to sites via a mobile network.
To boost your risk-free browsing experience a lot more, IPVanish has actually implemented condition info. There you will get to see a new IP address, the name of the web server, area, time invested linked, as well as much more.
Speaking of visuals. There’s a button between dark as well as light setting, so if you’re making use of system-wide dark mode, IPVanish UI won’t stand out like a sore thumb.
IPVanish VPN functions.
IPVanish is a feature-rich VPN that will certainly please most of your demands. It consists of encrypted storage space (which is quite unusual when it comes to VPNs), automatic link attributes, split tunneling, web traffic obfuscation, and also a SOCKS5 proxy.
You additionally can obtain encrypted storage space for a tiny cost when you’re paying for your IPVanish registration. It functions in a similar way to Dropbox or Google Drive, with the benefit that it’s encrypted utilizing the AES-256 security. Your uploaded files are safeguarded with the same standard as your VPN connection.
SugarSync lets you accumulate to 500 GB. One of the most significant marketing factor is that you can even enable upload by email. When you enable this option, you can onward emails with add-ons to a special email address. The affixed files will be quickly kept in the cloud. This is convenient and also fixes some issues if you’re using a safe and secure e-mail provider with restricted inbox storage.
IPVanish deals a technique to automatize your links with the On Demand function. You auto-connect to the VPN in pre-determined situations when it’s transformed on. You can establish it approximately constantly link immediately, disable the function when attaching to a certain Wi-Fi, or transform it on when linking to defined sites.
IPVanish VPN on demand feature.
If you set it up for your mobile, you can pick to not make use of the VPN while at house yet instantly attach in coffee shops or libraries. The VPN does its great work from the history.
Split tunneling enables IPVanish individuals much better control of their VPN setup. With this feature, you can select applications, which can connect to the Internet, bypassing the VPN connection. This means that they will be connecting straight with your real IP address as opposed to experiencing an intermediary.
IPVanish VPN split tunneling.
It makes good sense to make use of split tunneling for local versions of applications that you’re using. You can get food from a regional merchant, instead than some chain that’s located on another continent. It will work wonderful for Netflix.
This attribute can also reduce the risk that your financial application will certainly cause security notifies. These apps are especially sensitive to foreign IPs signing up with the internet site, as it’s often a signal for scammers that got a hold of a person’s data. With split tunneling, you’ll have the ability to prevent all such problems. Regretfully, it’s offered for Android individuals only.
Every IPVanish membership comes with a complimentary SOCKS5 proxy. It’s an unencrypted intermediary server, which eliminates your IP address.
However, it’s worth noting that the IP address being hidden is the only benefit. SOCKS doesn’t encrypt your information. A snoopy ISP will certainly have the ability to see what you’re doing online. It simply minimizes the risk that your IP address will certainly end up on some dubious list.
For more tech-savvy individuals, IPVanish regards to service don’t restrict SOCKS5 use for scraping. It means that if you want to scuff websites for information, you can in theory use IPVanish without repercussions. We have not evaluated this solution in this feeling, so do not take it as a recommendation.
An additional useful function regarding the presence of which IPVanish isn’t screaming from the roofs is website traffic obfuscation. You can tick a box in the settings to allow the XOR cipher for your web traffic. That way, your encrypted traffic is customized, making it hard to identify you’re utilizing a VPN.
IPVanish VPN obfuscated servers toggle.
The first layer of security secures your traded web traffic, as an example, the checked out sites. It leaves you with patterns that are really indicative of OpenVPN use. With XOR, OpenVPN’s web traffic sheds its VPN qualities as they are clambered with the XOR step.
It might seem irrelevant, but remember that some governments have actually applied firewall softwares with deep-packet evaluation. Their function is to disable all VPN use. So, with obfuscation, you’re immune to their blocks to some extent.
Is IPVanish risk-free as well as secure?
IPVanish is a safe VPN that uses solid military-grade ciphers and has necessary protection functions. You’ll be protected against DNS or IP leaks. It does have some black places in its past that make this company’s privacy declares questionable.
Like most consumer-grade VPN solution companies, IPVanish makes use of 256-bit AES security. For this factor, it’s widely used in government and also monetary establishments.
Account verification is processed with SHA-512 hash functions, rushing your login info into hashes. Due to the fact that it’s SHA-512, each hash’s dimension is 512 bits, so it’s a great deal to procedure. Duplicating such a hash would take an ridiculous amount of time, making your information secure.
Their verification devices likewise support excellent ahead secrecy, implying that some section of their security system is frequently changing. This implies that the file encryption keys they were making use of just an hour ago are somewhat various from the file encryption tricks they’re using currently. In the case of a information breach, you can have more peace of mind that your data will stay risk-free.
IPVanish has a wide range of offered tunneling methods. You can pick from.
|OpenVPN||Versatile, all-around security|
|IKEv2/IPsec||Cellular/wi-fi data/mobile devices|
|WireGuard||Best option overall|
WireGuard– a brand-new sort of protocol that can bringing the best speed, strong protection, as well as is easy to release. Offered on all their clients.
OpenVPN (TCP/UDP)– open-source method, which still offers excellent safety. Offered on Windows, macOS, and Android.
IKEv2/IPSec– the most popular mobile device option as a result of reduced resource usage, compatibility, as well as near-instant reconnections on disrupts. Available on all their customers.
L2TP/IPSec– is a mix of 2 older methods, which as a bundle is taken into consideration to be relatively protected. Readily available on Windows as well as macOS.
PPTP– although it has wide compatibility greatly it’s an obsolete tunneling method, which is still often made use of when no other options work. Readily available just on Windows.
It’s worth mentioning that there’s also an SSTP alternative, which is available on Windows. I really did not take care of to attach to any of their web servers using this method. Or else, this could be a selling factor, as this procedure is understood to bypass China’s Great Firewall.
In general, IPVanish has a decent suite of tunneling methods, with the best choices being WireGuard, OpenVPN, and also IKEv2. That being said, it doesn’t stay in the corner as well as view the best VPNs boosting– IPVanish accompanies them.
IPVanish is a feature-rich and also straightforward VPN. And to tease you a little bit more– IPVanish is able to provide you a large variety of functions and some of them aren’t found in any type of other VPN. Split tunneling enables IPVanish individuals much better control of their VPN configuration. IPVanish is a risk-free VPN that uses solid military-grade ciphers and also has important security features. Like most consumer-grade VPN solution providers, IPVanish uses 256-bit AES file encryption.
IPVanish does have a typical kill switch that shuts down your web link if a link to a VPN web server is interrupted. However, there are more personalization alternatives for it.
IPVanish VPN kill switch
It’s additionally possible to obstruct LAN accessibility to close the tool off from the local network devices. This may matter if you’re cautious regarding that can also be attached on a public Wi-Fi. Backwards, you can set it up to make sure that you can obstruct all other regional network user interfaces when you’re attached to the VPN. When you’re downloading gush data, this may aid you to avoid your information from leaking.
In our examinations, turning off the app didn’t disrupt the connection to the VPN web server with IKEv2 as well as interrupted it with OpenVPN. So, even if you inadvertently shut the app, you’ll still continue to be connected with IKEv2, but not on OpenVPN.
Disabling the OpenVPN process involved the kill switch. The app also attempted to reconnect behind-the-scenes. The only problem was that it gave no notice regarding what’s going on.
The kill switch functions as promoted. The kill button will have your back if you’re doing something sensitive as well as the link breaks.
When looking for a suitable company place, IPVanish chose one of the most awful available options– the United States. This is house to the NSA, which is tapped into all of the country’s information lines. Also, the United States government is among the charter member of the Five Eyes alliance.
In their privacy plan, nonetheless, IPVanish promises to treat your data with miraculous regard. They assert not to log or sell your data or details on your online activity. The only gathered info pieces are the e-mail address and also settlement approach.
That claimed, they confess that their internet site utilizes rather a great deal of tracking cookies. Or else, this shouldn’t be such a big deal. Still, taking into consideration that their main customer is privacy-minded, this doesn’t show favorably on them.
In the past, they have collaborated with the FBI, supplying email, account condition, actual IP address, and also link timestamps. It did assist to take a sexual killer into wardship, however it added a black area on the IPVanish personal privacy promises.
Subsequently, lately IPVanish has been separately examined by Leviathan Security Group. The firm has efficiently examined the application and also authorized IPVanish’s cases regarding not accumulating activity nor traffic logs.
|24/7 live chat||…|
|Guides or articles||…|
If you have some inquiries regarding their service, the finest location to begin is their understanding. There you’ll find lots of FAQs, so it’s likely that your issues already have a well-documented solution with images. It seems effectively preserved, and I really did not handle to locate outdated articles.
If your problem requires their input, you can contact their customer assistance agents using e-mail or live conversation. E-mail isn’t the fastest alternative at their disposal.
In general, their customer assistance left a favorable perception. I liked the fact that their consumer support site reveals whether there are any major troubles with the solution. In this way, you recognize that the problem isn’t on your end.
Is IPVanish worth as well as great obtaining?
IPVanish is a middle-shelf VPN service that uses the majority of what you would certainly expect from a VPN. This carrier has all the essential functions like a useful kill button as well as numerous servers to attach to. It additionally unblocks Netflix, has P2P compatibilities, as well as supplies a really inexpensive rate for the initial year. There are no IP or DNS leakages to speak of.
That said, because of their company location, it may not be the best option if absolute privacy is your goal. Also as an entertainment-only option, it has some problems with unblocking some streaming services. If you’re mainly seeing Netflix or YouTube, it can unblock them conveniently– and with the upgraded WireGuard speeds, you’ll be streaming high-def material in no time.
For a economical and quick choice for Netflix as well as torrenting, IPVanish is an superb VPN.
Allow us understand your experiences and viewpoint on IPVanish in the comments area listed below!
Learn more regarding VPN service providers:
IPVanish vs. ExpressVPN: which VPN would certainly we suggest?
IPVanish vs. PureVPN: just how do these VPNs contrast?
KeepSolid VPN Unlimited testimonial: learn all about its efficiency and attributes
Is IPVanish totally free?
IPVanish doesn’t have a cost-free variation. The only means to try the solution is by asking and also getting a annual strategy for a reimbursement.
How many devices does IPVanish enable?
IPVanish offers unlimited synchronised connections. Time ago, it supplied just 10.
Which is better IPVanish or NordVPN?
In the future, NordVPN can be a extra budget-friendly alternative that likewise has more attributes and also is normally more secure. Find out more in our IPVanish vs NordVPN contrast.
Is IPVanish good for streaming?
IPVanish is decent for streaming. Although it does not offer any type of details servers for that, you are able to accessibility Netflix US, YouTube, as well as BBC iPlayer. Additionally, its carried out WireGuard procedure enables you to have a wonderful experience by giving you with proficient video loading.
When looking for a ideal organization location, IPVanish selected one of the worst offered options– the US. In their personal privacy plan, nevertheless, IPVanish guarantees to treat your data with the utmost regard. It did aid to take a sex-related predator into protection, however it included a black area on the IPVanish personal privacy assurances. IPVanish is a middle-shelf VPN service that provides many of what you would certainly anticipate from a VPN. IPVanish is suitable for streaming.