Ipvanish Ipad Troubleshooting
IPVanish is a feature-rich as well as easy to use VPN. In fact, it’s a great device to raise your on-line safety and security and privacy, or just delight in Netflix or YouTube. Moreover, all of this comes with a wallet-friendly price.
Based in the United States, this VPN unblocks Netflix, deals with various torrenting clients, and also offers instead high speeds with WireGuard tunneling procedure.
As well as to tease you a little bit a lot more– IPVanish has the ability to supply you a large range of attributes as well as some of them aren’t discovered in any other VPN. You can set your VPN link to work on your preferred wi-fi or application with the On Demand attribute. Plus, the SOCKS5 proxy is consisted of which will certainly come as handy if you are a torrenting follower.
But do not rush into putting your pink glasses on. Just like any other VPN company this set likewise has its own drawbacks. For instance, applications could obtain quite unpleasant to make use of.
Nevertheless, there are great deals to uncover if you’re ready to vanish a few dollars for the solution. Proceed reading this IPVanish testimonial as well as discover out what you may anticipate from it.
MINIMAL OFFER: Get up to 69% OFF IPVanish + an Antivirus!
- Rating : 4.6/ 5.
- Total ranking: # 3 out of # 29.
- No logs plan: No logs.
- Cost: From $3.33/ month.
- Servers :2000+ web servers in 50 countries.
- Streaming services: Netflix, YouTube.
- Discount coupons: IPVanish discount coupon 69% OFF.
IPVanish pros and cons.
- One of the most affordable yearly options.
- Geographically varied servers.
- Limitless connections.
- Automatization choices.
- Free SOCKS5 proxy.
- Rate rises after a year.
- Does not operate in China.
Browse through IPVanish for more information concerning the functions.
Is IPVanish good for streaming?
While it has the ability to unclog some of the significant systems, for example, Netflix or YouTube, it can deal with the rest consisting of Disney Plus and also DAZN.
|BBC iPlayer||… Yes|
|Disney +||❌ No|
|Amazon Prime Video||❌ No|
IPVanish doesn’t have actually specialized servers for streaming. You will be utilizing the exact same ones when it comes to everything else. Therefore, it might get quite bothersome as you are not able to bypass quite vital streaming websites.
In conclusion, if you are a TV series binge spectator, after that IPVanish wouldn’t be the very best alternative to go with. You might locate the best option for this on our listing of the best VPNs for streaming.
Unblocking Netflix with IPVanish.
IPVanish is a sensible choice for bypassing Netflix geo-restrictions. I can introduce that IPVanish functions with Netflix as well as is capable of bringing you some streaming enjoyment.
Nevertheless, if you additionally elegant to enjoy some European titles, I have unfortunate information for you. IPVanish couldn’t unclog the majority of the European Netflix collections, with a very few exceptions. So if you desire a VPN that unclogs the European Netflix, i recommend you take a look at our ideal VPN for Netflix checklist.
What various other streaming platforms does IPVanish unblock?
I have selected numerous large websites to check IPVanish’s abilities but the result had not been as exciting as you would certainly intend to see. Just 3 streaming sites obtained uncloged with IPVanish– Netflix ( United States library, YouTube, as well as BBC iPlayer).
Besides Netflix United States obtaining unblocked, YouTube additionally had not been a hard nut to fracture. When attached to their servers, you can unblock geographically restricted sports highlights or trailers without troubles. Even if you would certainly like to see what ads are received other countries, it’s possible.
To be specific, I have handled to unclog the site and also obtain to see the video clips. Looking for BBC iPlayer VPNs would certainly be the ideal solution.
The adhering to dissatisfaction was satisfied while attempting to gain access to DAZN. The VPN was captured in their filters, returning an error and obstructing access to the website. The exact same happened with other complying with streaming systems.
Nevertheless, if you intend to set up IPVanish with Kodi box, you can download and install the.apk submit from their web site and install it on the device. With this VPN, it will be straightforward to unblock certain web content libraries.
Overall, IPVanish appears a decent choice for streaming. If you’re only thinking about Netflix and also YouTube, IPVanish will certainly do just fine. If you require extra particular niche streaming internet sites uncloged, you may run right into some troubles. This is a embarassment since they have Apps for Fire TV, Fire Stick, Fire Cube, that makes streaming even more hassle-free.
Is IPVanish great and safe for torrenting?
Yes, IPVanish is fairly good and secure for torrenting. Nonetheless, calling it outstanding for torrenting wouldn’t be right. Truth be told, IPVanish isn’t making a huge marketing mention of its P2P capabilities. The service doesn’t provide specialized torrenting servers, so you’ll have to utilize the very same pool.
Since torrenting with IPVanish works without troubles, I’ve found out this isn’t such a massive trouble. Throughout the examinations, the download rate was 7-8MB/ s (56-64mbps) once it connected to all of the peers. So, the rates were a bit greater than I’m accustomed to seeing typically.
There’s additionally a complimentary SOCKS5 proxy. To be exact, this server is terrific for those who seek to preserve terrific rates however at the same time, they intend to be safe and also have on the internet personal privacy. Those that desire to take advantage of even higher speeds also have choices.
Maintain in mind that we all have different requirements, it’s always beneficial to have extra alternatives. In this situation, examining our top VPNs for torrenting may aid.
Plans and also pricing.
When selecting an IPVanish prices plan is whether you require SugarSync, the major issue that you’ll have. You can either get only the VPN or a package that includes their encrypted storage space.
SugarSync package (includes 500 GB of encrypted storage):.
|1-month plan||$12.99 a month|
|1-year plan||$89.99 for the first year, then $109.99|
No matter just how you distribute the quantity, you will certainly be billed instantly for the whole sum beforehand. When put in viewpoint, their month-to-month prices aren’t that high. Taking into consideration the number of features that you get, it’s a respectable bargain.
If you have use for encrypted storage space, the included cost of SugarSync is well worth it. Nevertheless, after the very first month or first-year discount rate ends, the rates isn’t that reduced. This virtually makes IPVanish the least expensive VPN to utilize for a year.
Their 30-day money-back guarantee only puts on their annual strategies. If you wish to obtain an IPVanish free trial, don’t select a regular monthly option, as you will not obtain a refund. All plans support unrestricted synchronised connections, so you’ll have total freedom over the number of gadgets you can use with the VPN.
Offered payment options consist of charge card and PayPal. If you’re preparing to pay with cryptocurrencies, you will not be able to do it.
If IPVanish costs look a little bit high– we might have a option. Take a look at our page for IPVanish coupons to see if there’s a offer awaiting you.
Can you obtain IPVanish VPN completely free?
Formally, IPVanish does not provide a free strategy or a complimentary trial . There is a 30-day money-back guarantee for those that choose to choose a yearly or a 2-year strategy. So what’s so great regarding it?
Well, despite the fact that having a totally free VPN for only a month can be not nearly enough for some, it’s still an ample term of time to try the program. By signing up for a costs strategy you get to experience all VPN benefits with no excluded attribute.
Alternatively, with a totally free VPN, you would get a suite of protection with some severe cut-offs. As an example, fewer servers and also areas to choose from, no possibility to bypass geo-restrictions, and even less tunneling procedures.
That being stated, by utilizing a 30-day money-back warranty you are able to evaluate the application, discover your demands with a VPN, and also stay safeguarded for free for a entire month!
IPVanish web servers as well as places.
The server matter isn’t one of the most vital feature of a VPN service, but it has its advantages. A massive fleet allows preventing traffic congestion on their web servers. If the user base is evenly spread throughout the globe, it indicates that your speeds will suffer much less.
In this regard, IPVanish has ~ 2000 web servers in ~ 75 locations. So, although the fleet isn’t the greatest, the nation quantity is above the standard. In addition, all these servers are owned by the company, which has protection benefits.
IPVanish VPN web server fleet.
Out of 6 materials, these 4 (North America, Europe, Asia, Oceania) are the richest in servers:.
|Regions||Number of servers||Number of countries|
|North America||~ 1278 servers||4 countries|
|Europe||~ 527 servers||30 countries|
|Asia||~ 84 servers||9 countries|
|Oceania||~ 73 servers||2 countries|
In addition, it’s hassle-free and also fairly easy to choose a server and also place on IPVanish’s application. Right here is exactly how:.
- Locate your preferred place on a map.
- Click a eco-friendly bubble that determines the number of web servers.
- Connect to the recommended fastest server or among your choices.
If you’re preparing to make use of IPVanish for Asian web servers, it might be a bit jampacked if even more customers made a decision to attach at the same time. Those choosing Europe will have a much far better customer experience.
Range from the VPN server and also your place will certainly additionally impact your rate.
Does IPVanish operate in China?
After running through the test we have specified that IPVanish does not work in China. Yet there might be a remedy that can assist.
Yet, do not maintain your hopes high. As IPVanish claims on its web site “… please note that China, particularly, has begun blacklisting our IP addresses as well … so also this action may not help”.
What you might attempt is attaching by means of a hands-on configuration by attaching to IPVanish’s servers’ IP addresses rather than its server names. By doing this, China could ignore that you are utilizing a VPN.
And if the last technique didn’t aid you out, you need to take a look at our provided best VPNs for China.
Speed and efficiency: Is IPVanish quickly?
IPVanish rates are exceptional because it sustains the fastest tunneling procedure currently offered on the market– WireGuard. Our tests have actually shown quick download speeds, retaining around 80-90% of the initial performance in key places. And depending on your location and server, upload speeds can be really close to that also.
Conversely, IPVanish has an alternative to select the OpenVPN tunneling method which likewise offers respectable speeds. You can see the arise from the past 14 days in the table below. It consists of the top three places that are most generally selected by individuals.
Data period: 06.20 – 07.04
|68 Mbit/s||279 Mbit/s|
|228 Mbit/s||299 Mbit/s|
|219 Mbit/s||302 Mbit/s|
See live VPN provider data on our VPN speed test device.
To summarize, IPVanish can bring wonderful rates and also enhance your browsing experience. The very best point you can do is link to the WireGuard protocol and select a area that is not also much from you. Thus, you would certainly have light-fast speeds as well as excellent safety and security!
IPVanish efficiency with various other methods.
Besides WireGuard and also OpenVPN, IPVanish also supports various other tunneling methods, consisting of IKEv2, L2TP, as well as PPTP .
Right here are the results for all available protocols:.
Standard: 300 Mbps download/300 Mbps upload.
- IKEv2: 238/32.
- OpenVPN UDP: 137/55.
- OpenVPN TCP: 163/135.
- L2TP: 90/24.
- PPTP: 42/22.
- WireGuard: 240/130.
The download speeds were more consistent as well as overall greater, however the upload speed dropped substantially in several situations. On average, the download rates dropped by 21%, while upload rate decreases were around 89%.
The majority of other VPN solution suppliers are dropping support for L2TP, it’s still below. The download rate goes down usually were 70%, while the upload rates come by 23%. Coupled with the truth that ping times also weren’t excellent, it resembles the only case where L2TP could be helpful is compatibility. It must work with many tools without troubles. That’s hardly a selling point on its own, thinking about the speed reductions.
It seems that globally PPTP is the worst alternative that IPVanish has. Not only due to safety susceptabilities connected with it. Average download and upload speed decreases were 86% and also 93%, specifically. Ping times were also pretty big, so it seems that PPTP is badly maximized.
All in all, right here is exactly how leading IPVanish’s protocols stand against each other:.
You can obtain an even much better understanding of IPVanish speeds if you know exactly how other VPNs carry out. So allow’s contrast IPVanish’s results with the WireGuard procedure to the various other leading VPN service providers:.
|Provider||Average download speed|
Overall, IPVanish can really go punch-for-punch with also the fastest VPN service providers on the planet when it comes to rates with the WireGuard tunneling procedure. If you’re looking for strong performance, IPVanish is an alternative we can suggest.
IPVanish VPN video clip testimonial.
It’s worth taking a appearance at our video clip IPVanish review below if you desire to have some more aesthetic info about IPVainish or just see a enchanting individual talking.
Interface and ease of use
|Windows||The richest experience with IPVanish|
|macOS||Less customizable but easy to use|
|Linux||No graphical app, works through terminal|
|Mobile devices||Decent user-friendly applications|
The apps of IPVanish VPN are quite easy to use, however they will be more appreciated by advanced users– primarily thanks to the number of features, progressed settings, as well as in-depth statistics regarding the link. Windows, Mac, Android, as well as iOS users will certainly get devoted applications, while those who make use of Linux will certainly need to use the Command Line Interface.
If you are a Windows individual, with IPVanish you get a option from a number of tabs like QuickConnect, Server List, and Account setups. By switching the tabs, you can rapidly change your setups or connect to a various web server.
IPVanish VPN home windows UI.
The web server checklist can be switched from list view to map view, which I located very hassle-free. There’s also a filter according to the distance and latency of the server. You are able to include servers to a Favorite listing which will be displayed on the top of the country list.
Also, the Windows kill button is a little bit extra customizable than on the macOS version, allowing also computer network blocks. Various other than SSTP and also PPTP tunneling methods, nothing is separating the Windows and macOS versions.
Feature-wise, the macOS version has a kill switch, auto-reconnect, an obfuscation toggle, as well as on-demand policies.
IPVanish VPN UI on MacOS.
Besides that, the macOS variation is less adjustable than the Widows application. Yet the experience with IPVanish doesn’t become worse. The entire interface stays similar which is rather easy to use and still appears to be customizable adequate to obtain the very best from it.
IPVanish mobile applications.
Suppose you’re an passionate cybersecurity devices customer by currently. IPVanish apps are no exception to the rule.
The iOS variation has On Demand connections, Siri shortcuts, and an alternative link mode. Or else, there’s nothing else. With the exception of nice-looking and also fairly comfy user interface.
ipvanish for ios.
The Settings area permits you to easily tailor the functionality of the application. Likewise, there you will certainly locate protection devices that you might enable, for instance, the On Demand feature.
While you are selecting a server and area that you wish to attach to, IPVanish makes certain you have the possibility of attaching to the most effective feasible alternative. Definition, it identifies what web server and the city are the best available.
The iphone app has a better layout, working stays rather a lot the very same on Android. On the other hand, neither app has a specialized kill button.
Below, you’re getting the obfuscation toggle and also split tunneling. You can even decrease the optimum packet size that can be transmitted over your network, which can assist if you’re having trouble getting to internet sites through a mobile network.
To improve your risk-free browsing experience much more, IPVanish has actually executed standing information. There you will reach see a brand-new IP address, the name of the web server, location, time invested connected, and much more.
Speaking of visuals. There’s a switch between light and also dark setting, so if you’re making use of system-wide dark mode, IPVanish UI will not protrude like a sore thumb.
IPVanish VPN attributes.
IPVanish is a feature-rich VPN that will certainly please the majority of your demands. For instance, it includes encrypted storage space (which is quite unusual when it concerns VPNs), automated link features, split tunneling, website traffic obfuscation, as well as even a SOCKS5 proxy.
When you’re paying for your IPVanish subscription, you also can get encrypted storage for a little charge. It functions likewise to Dropbox or Google Drive, with the advantage that it’s secured using the AES-256 security. So, your uploaded documents are safeguarded with the same requirement as your VPN link.
SugarSync allows you store up to 500 GB. One of the most considerable marketing point is that you can also make it possible for upload by email. You can forward emails with accessories to a unique email address when you enable this alternative. The connected data will certainly be instantly kept in the cloud. This is convenient and also resolves some issues if you’re using a secure e-mail company with limited inbox storage.
IPVanish deals a approach to automatize your connections with the On Demand feature. You auto-connect to the VPN in pre-determined situations when it’s turned on. You can establish it up to constantly link immediately, disable the attribute when connecting to a particular Wi-Fi, or turn it on when connecting to defined sites.
IPVanish VPN on demand feature.
You can choose to not make use of the VPN while at residence yet automatically link in coffee stores or libraries if you establish it up for your mobile. That way, you do not need to bear in mind to allow it. The VPN does its great from the background. Nevertheless, this attribute is just offered on iphone.
Split tunneling permits IPVanish individuals better control of their VPN setup. With this function, you can choose applications, which can connect to the Internet, bypassing the VPN connection. This indicates that they will certainly be linking straight with your genuine IP address instead of undergoing an intermediary.
IPVanish VPN split tunneling.
It makes good sense to utilize split tunneling for local variations of applications that you’re utilizing. So, you can get food from a regional store, rather than some chain that’s situated on an additional continent. It will certainly work terrific for Netflix.
This function can additionally lessen the threat that your banking application will certainly set off safety signals. These applications are specifically sensitive to international IPs signing up with the website, as it’s frequently a signal for fraudsters that obtained somebody’s data. With split tunneling, you’ll be able to stay clear of all such troubles. Unfortunately, it’s offered for Android individuals only.
Every IPVanish membership comes with a cost-free SOCKS5 proxy. It’s an unencrypted intermediary server, which removes your IP address.
It’s worth noting that the IP address being concealed is the only benefit. SOCKS doesn’t encrypt your data. A peeping ISP will certainly be able to see what you’re doing online. It just reduces the threat that your IP address will wind up on some unethical checklist.
For even more tech-savvy users, IPVanish terms of solution don’t restrict SOCKS5 use for scuffing. It suggests that if you wish to scratch sites for information, you can theoretically make use of IPVanish without effects. We have not examined this solution in this feeling, so do not take it as a recommendation.
Another useful attribute about the presence of which IPVanish isn’t yelling from the rooftops is web traffic obfuscation. You can tick a box in the setups to make it possible for the XOR cipher for your traffic. In this way, your encrypted web traffic is modified, making it difficult to establish you’re making use of a VPN.
IPVanish VPN obfuscated servers toggle.
The first layer of security shields your exchanged web traffic, for instance, the checked out web sites. It leaves you with patterns that are very indicative of OpenVPN usage. Nevertheless, with XOR, OpenVPN’s traffic sheds its VPN attributes as they are scrambled with the XOR action.
It might seem irrelevant, yet remember that some governments have actually executed firewalls with deep-packet evaluation. Their feature is to disable all VPN use. So, with obfuscation, you’re unsusceptible to their blocks to some extent.
Is IPVanish risk-free as well as protect?
IPVanish is a safe VPN that makes use of solid military-grade ciphers as well as has vital safety and security features. You’ll be protected against DNS or IP leaks. Though, it does have some black areas in its past that make this service provider’s privacy claims questionable.
Like a lot of consumer-grade VPN solution companies, IPVanish makes use of 256-bit AES encryption. For this reason, it’s widely made use of in federal government as well as financial establishments.
Account authentication is refined with SHA-512 hash functions, rushing your login information into hashes. Due to the fact that it’s SHA-512, each hash’s dimension is 512 little bits, so it’s a great deal to process. Replicating such a hash would take an unreasonable amount of time, making your data safe.
Their verification systems additionally sustain ideal forward privacy, indicating that some portion of their encryption system is frequently transforming. This suggests that the file encryption secrets they were utilizing merely an hr earlier are a little different from the file encryption tricks they’re making use of now. So, in the case of a information breach, you can have a lot more assurance that your information will certainly continue to be secure.
IPVanish has a variety of available tunneling procedures. You can select from.
|OpenVPN||Versatile, all-around security|
|IKEv2/IPsec||Cellular/wi-fi data/mobile devices|
|WireGuard||Best option overall|
WireGuard– a new kind of protocol that can bringing the most effective speed, strong safety and security, and also is simple to release. Available on all their customers.
OpenVPN (TCP/UDP)– open-source method, which still provides first-class security. Readily available on Windows, macOS, as well as Android.
IKEv2/IPSec– one of the most preferred smart phone option as a result of reduced source use, compatibility, and near-instant reconnections on disturbs. Offered on all their clients.
L2TP/IPSec– is a combination of two older protocols, which as a bundle is considered to be fairly safe. Offered on Windows and macOS.
PPTP– although it has wide compatibility greatly it’s an obsolete tunneling method, which is still often used when nothing else alternatives work. Readily available just on Windows.
It’s worth stating that there’s likewise an SSTP choice, which is available on Windows. However, I really did not take care of to link to any of their servers using this method. Or else, this could be a marketing factor, as this procedure is known to bypass China’s Great Firewall.
On the whole, IPVanish has a decent collection of tunneling protocols, with the best options being WireGuard, OpenVPN, and IKEv2. That being claimed, it doesn’t remain in the corner as well as see the very best VPNs improving– IPVanish supports them.
IPVanish is a easy to use as well as feature-rich VPN. And to tease you a little bit more– IPVanish is able to provide you a broad range of attributes and also some of them aren’t discovered in any other VPN. Split tunneling enables IPVanish users a lot better control of their VPN configuration. IPVanish is a secure VPN that uses strong military-grade ciphers and also has vital protection attributes. Like the majority of consumer-grade VPN service carriers, IPVanish makes use of 256-bit AES security.
IPVanish does have a typical kill switch that closes down your web connection if a link to a VPN server is cut off. There are extra personalization options for it.
IPVanish VPN kill button
It’s likewise possible to block LAN access to close the tool off from the regional network gadgets. In reverse, you can set it up so that you can block all various other local network user interfaces when you’re connected to the VPN.
In our examinations, switching off the app really did not disrupt the connection to the VPN server with IKEv2 and also interrupted it with OpenVPN. Also if you accidentally close the application, you’ll still continue to be connected with IKEv2, however not on OpenVPN.
Disabling the OpenVPN process engaged the kill switch. The application also attempted to reconnect in the background. The only problem was that it gave no notice regarding what’s taking place.
The kill button works as promoted. If you’re doing something delicate and the connection breaks, the kill button will have your back.
When looking for a appropriate company place, IPVanish chose one of the most awful available choices– the US. This is home to the NSA, which is taken advantage of every one of the country’s data lines. Likewise, the United States government is one of the founding members of the Five Eyes alliance.
That stated, they admit that their web site makes use of rather a great deal of tracking cookies. Otherwise, this shouldn’t be such a big deal. Still, considering that their main client is privacy-minded, this doesn’t reflect positively on them.
In the past, they have teamed up with the FBI, offering e-mail, account status, actual IP address, and also link timestamps. It did help to take a sexual killer into protection, yet it added a black spot on the IPVanish privacy promises.
Just recently IPVanish has been independently audited by Leviathan Security Group. The business has efficiently examined the application as well as authorized IPVanish’s claims regarding not accumulating activity neither web traffic logs.
|24/7 live chat||…|
|Guides or articles||…|
If you have some questions concerning their solution, the most effective area to begin is their knowledge center. There you’ll discover heaps of FAQs, so it’s most likely that your troubles currently have a well-documented solution with pictures. It seems effectively preserved, as well as I didn’t manage to locate outdated short articles.
Nonetheless, if your issue requires their input, you can call their customer assistance agents using e-mail or live conversation. I called them, asking if there is anything that can be done to unclog iPlayer. I just got a reply 3 days later, asking what device I am making use of. Email isn’t the fastest choice at their disposal. Nonetheless, live conversation verified to be much faster.
Overall, their consumer assistance left a favorable perception. I liked the fact that their client assistance site shows whether there are any kind of major issues with the service. That way, you recognize that the issue isn’t on your end.
Is IPVanish worth as well as great obtaining?
IPVanish is a middle-shelf VPN solution that provides a lot of what you ‘d get out of a VPN. This service provider has all the essential functions like a useful kill switch and countless web servers to connect to. It likewise unclogs Netflix, has P2P compatibilities, and also offers a really cost effective rate for the first year. There are no IP or DNS leaks to mention.
That said, due to their business location, it may not be the go-to selection if absolute privacy is your objective. Even as an entertainment-only option, it has some difficulties with unblocking some streaming services. Nevertheless, if you’re mainly viewing Netflix or YouTube, it can unclog them easily– as well as with the upgraded WireGuard rates, you’ll be streaming high-def web content in no time at all.
For a fast as well as cheap option for Netflix and also torrenting, IPVanish is an outstanding VPN.
Let us recognize your experiences as well as point of view on IPVanish in the comments area below!
Discover more regarding VPN providers:
IPVanish vs. ExpressVPN: which VPN would we recommend?
IPVanish vs. PureVPN: how do these VPNs contrast?
KeepSolid VPN Unlimited review: learn everything about its performance as well as attributes
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION
Is IPVanish cost-free?
No. IPVanish doesn’t have a cost-free variation. Even their 1-month tests are non-refundable. The only means to try the service is by asking and also getting a annual plan for a refund.
How many devices does IPVanish enable?
IPVanish offers unlimited synchronised connections. Some time back, it offered just 10.
Which is better IPVanish or NordVPN?
Over time, NordVPN can be a extra budget-friendly choice that likewise has even more attributes and also is normally much safer. Find out more in our IPVanish vs NordVPN contrast.
Is IPVanish great for streaming?
IPVanish is good for streaming. It doesn’t provide any type of certain servers for that, you are able to access Netflix US, YouTube, and also BBC iPlayer. Its executed WireGuard protocol permits you to have a wonderful experience by giving you with well-versed video clip loading.